The red-hair gene is most common in among Scottish and Irish people. Although the history that used to be taught at school said the Irish were a Celtic people who had migrated from central Europe, the latest studies of Irish DNA tell us a very different story. Research done into the DNA of the Irish has shown that our old understanding of where the population of Ireland originated may have been misguided. The modern Irish population share many genetic similarities with Scottish and Welsh populations, and to a lesser extent the English.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, and suggests the meaning "the tall ones". Galli called themselves Celts,  which suggests that even if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul.
The geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race which is now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he also uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, which is separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees.
Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and also uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Galli might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally, perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Celtic refers to a family of languages and, more generally, means "of the Celts" or "in the style of the Celts". Several archaeological cultures are considered Celtic in nature, based on unique sets of artefacts.
The link between language and artefact is aided by the presence of inscriptions. Celtic cultures seem to have been widely diverse, with the use of a Celtic language being the main thing they had in common.
These are the regions where four Celtic languages are still spoken to some extent as mother tongues. Celtic regions of Continental Europe are those whose residents claim a Celtic heritage, but where no Celtic language has survived; these areas include the western Iberian Peninsulai. The Celts of Brittany derive their language from migrating insular Celts, mainly from Wales and Cornwalland so are grouped accordingly.
By the time speakers of Celtic languages entered history around BCthey were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Western continental Europe, the Iberian PeninsulaIreland and Britain. The Greek historian Ephorus of Cyme in Asia Minorwriting in the 4th century BCbelieved that the Celts came from the islands off the mouth of the Rhine and were "driven from their homes by the frequency of wars and the violent rising of the sea".
Hallstatt culture Some scholars think that the Urnfield culture of western Middle Europe represents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European family.
The Urnfield period saw a dramatic increase in population in the region, probably due to innovations in technology and agriculture. The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture directly from the Urnfield c. Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by this school of thought to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures, in the early 1st millennium BC.
The spread of the Celtic languages to Iberia, Ireland and Britain would have occurred during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, the earliest chariot burials in Britain dating to c.
Other scholars see Celtic languages as covering Britain and Ireland, and parts of the Continent, long before any evidence of "Celtic" culture is found in archaeology. Over the centuries the language s developed into the separate CeltiberianGoidelic and Brittonic languages. Early Irish literature casts light on the flavour and tradition of the heroic warrior elites who dominated Celtic societies.
Celtic river-names are found in great numbers around the upper reaches of the Danube and Rhinewhich led many Celtic scholars to place the ethnogenesis of the Celts in this area. Diodorus Siculus and Strabo both suggest that the heartland of the people they called Celts was in southern France.
The former says that the Gauls were to the north of the Celts, but that the Romans referred to both as Gauls in linguistic terms the Gauls were certainly Celts.
Atlantic seaboard theory Myles Dillon and Nora Kershaw Chadwick accepted that "the Celtic settlement of the British Isles" might have to be dated to the Bell Beaker culture concluding that "There is no reason why so early a date for the coming of the Celts should be impossible". Using a multidisciplinary approach, Alberto J.
Stephen Oppenheimer  points out that the only written evidence that locates the Keltoi near the source of the Danube i. However, Oppenheimer shows that Herodotus seemed to believe the Danube rose near the Pyreneeswhich would place the Ancient Celts in a region which is more in agreement with later classical writers and historians i.
Linguistic evidence Further information: Celtiberian inscriptions, using their own Iberian script, appear later, after about BC. Besides epigraphical evidence, an important source of information on early Celtic is toponymy.
At the beginning of the 20th century the belief that these "Culture Groups" could be thought of in racial or ethnic terms was strongly held by Gordon Childe whose theory was influenced by the writings of Gustaf Kossinna.
It is considered equally difficult to maintain that the origin of the Peninsular Celts can be linked to the preceding Urnfield culture. It developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from Greekand later Etruscan civilisations.
A shift of settlement centres took place in the 4th century. Frey notes that in the 5th century, "burial customs in the Celtic world were not uniform; rather, localised groups had their own beliefs, which, in consequence, also gave rise to distinct artistic expressions".
Borders of the region known as Celtica at time of the Roman conquest c. Historical evidence Polybius published a history of Rome about BC in which he describes the Gauls of Italy and their conflict with Rome.
Pausanias in the 2nd century AD says that the Gauls "originally called Celts", "live on the remotest region of Europe on the coast of an enormous tidal sea".
Posidonius described the southern Gauls about BC. Though his original work is lost it was used by later writers such as Strabo.Morning: Course one: local expert will introduce our course on Celts, tracing their history as a distinct people through their migrations to western Europe, the near East, into Ireland & the British isles.
This is a copy of an original colour photograph that was taken in in Gortnamucklagh, Dunmanway, West Cork, by visiting American cousin Father John Smith, grandson of Michael Joseph Hennigan who had emigrated to the US in the Genetic history of the British Isles and the various ethnic groups that have contributed to the modern British and Irish gene pool.
Travelling with their families on wagons transporting their belongings, the Celts colonised most of France, Belgium and the south-east of England. People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of. The genetic history of the British Isles is the subject of research within the larger field of human population schwenkreis.com has developed in parallel with DNA testing technologies capable of identifying genetic similarities and differences between populations.
The conclusions of population genetics regarding the British Isles in turn draw upon and contribute to the larger field of.
The top destination for Megaliths and Prehistory worldwide. rhesus negative blood among Europeans: [News and Comments] The original Europeans who carried the rhesus negative blood factor 35 years ago are probably the original Europeans who painted the comic strips and other art in the caves of southern France and.
The individuals included had all four of their grandparents living close to each other in a rural area. This selection criterion enabled the researchers, led from Oxford University, to filter out.