Rather, I tried to indicate key moments that had an impact on the contemporary or future relations between the two nations.
The revolutions were initiated by members of the middle class and nobility who began demanding constitutional and representative governments, and by workers and peasants who revolted against developing capitalist practices that were resulting in greater poverty.
Participating in the revolutions were Poles, Danes, Germans, Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Croats, and Romanians who demanded self-determination from the empires that dominated them.
Although governmental changes achieved by the revolutions of were short-lived, the revolutions influenced the course of European government in the long term by undermining the concept of absolute monarchy and establishing an impetus for liberalism and socialism.
Revolution first erupted on February 22, in France, where supporters of universal suffrage voting rights and the socialists, led by Louis Blanc, overthrew King Louis Philippe and established the Second Republic. However, differences within the new government over political and economic reforms led to bloody street battles in Paris.
At the end of the nephew of Napoleon I, Louis Napoleon, was elected president. The February revolution in France sparked movements for unification in several German and Italian states.
Liberals in the German states proposed the formation of an elected national parliament for a united Germany. But the provisional government could not decide on a form for the new Germany, and the old order was restored. Growing nationalism among the Czechs, Hungarians, Germans, and other groups under the control of the Austrian empire led to rioting.
The news from Paris inspired popular demonstrations that drove the conservative minister Klemens von Metternich from office. A sequence of German liberal reform ministries followed, but the other nationalities within the Austrian Empire wished to control their own affairs.
On March 5, Hungary, which was under Austrian rule, the patriot Lajos Kossuth assumed control of a break-away government and declared independence for all Hungarian lands.
As a result, the Serbs, Croats, and Transylvanians, with the help of Austrian and Russian troops, defeated the Hungarian bid for independence in In Italy, where the expulsion of Austria had long been the goal of the Italian unity movement called the Risorgimento, a Venetian republic was proclaimed, and a revolution in Milan March was promptly supported by a new liberal regime in Sardinia-Piedmont.
But the tide soon turned. The revolution forced the flight of Pope Pius IX and led Giuseppe Mazzini, an advocate of unification, to set up the short-lived Roman republic in The Italian states, however, proved too protective of their independence to achieve unity.
Although these revolutions in the German and Italian states failed, the movement for unification gained strength in later years-resulting in the unifying of Italy in and Germany in On June 17, Austrian forces crushed this rebellion and a month later regained control in Milan. Then a constituent assembly convened in Vienna to draft a constitution for the empire.
It succeeded in abolishing serfdom, but in October it was driven from Vienna by a working-class rebellion; its work was later repudiated by a new prime minister, Felix Schwarzenberg.
In December the young Francis Joseph succeeded Ferdinand I as emperor of Austria and imposed a severely centralized administration. Schwarzenberg called in a Russian army, and in August the Hungarians surrendered. The Hambacher Convention in Maz was the first mass-meeting of the nationalists, who later promoted the German Revolution of In Germany, too, the Paris revolution inspired unrest.
A bloody confrontation in Berlin March forced the Prussian king Frederick William IV to summon a constitutional assembly, an example followed in other German states. Above all, however, the liberals hoped to create a unified German empire, and to this end the Frankfurt Parliament was elected and convened May It adopted a bill of rights and a moderately democratic form of government.
When Schwarzenberg made clear his determination to centralize Austria, however, the Frankfurt Parliament decided to exclude the German-speaking provinces of Austria from the German empire and in March offered the crown of a constitutional Germany to the king of Prussia.
He declined, and without Prussia the work of the parliament came to nothing. Meanwhile, in Prussia itself the king dissolved the constituent assembly and imposed his own constitution, which favored the wealthy classes but gave Prussia a measure of parliamentary government.
Despite a few lasting gains, the Revolutions of resulted in severe defeats for liberal nationalists seeking democratic reform. A Social History ; Stearns, P. The Revolutionary Tide in Europe Democracy in America and Two Essays on America (Penguin Classics) [Alexis de Tocqueville, Isaac Kramnick, Gerald Bevan] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A contemporary study of the early American nation and its evolving democracy, from a French aristocrat and sociologist In Alexis de Tocqueville. The type and formula of most schemes of philanthropy or humanitarianism is this: A and B put their heads together to decide what C shall be made to do for D.
I call C the Forgotten Man. Essays by Louis Beam on the emerging Federal Police State, and the Oklahoma City bombing. FBI terrorism, ATF, gun control, police state terror.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It is difficult to define the genre into which essays . A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah The type and formula of most schemes of philanthropy or humanitarianism is this: A and B put their heads together to decide what C shall be made to do for D.
I call C the Forgotten Man.