See Article History Robber baron, pejorative term for one of the powerful 19th-century U. The robber barons transformed the wealth of the American frontier into vast financial empires, amassing their fortunes by monopolizing essential industries.
During this time, various feudal lords, among them archbishops who held fiefs from the Holy Roman Emperor, collected tolls from passing cargo ships to bolster their finances.
Allowing the nobility and Church to collect tolls from the busy traffic on the Rhine seems to have been an attractive alternative to other means of taxation and funding of government functions.
In contrast, the men who came to be known as robber barons or robber knights German: Raubritter violated the structure under which tolls were collected on the Rhine either by charging higher tolls than the standard or by operating without authority from the Holy Roman Emperor altogether.
Great Interregnum[ edit ] During the period in the history of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Great Interregnum —when there was no Emperor, the number of tolling stations exploded in the absence of imperial authority.
In addition, robber barons began to earn their newly coined term of opprobrium by robbing ships of their cargoes, stealing entire ships, and even kidnapping. In response to this organized, military lawlessness, the "Rheinischer Bund," or Rhine League was formed by Cities, and from several princes and prince-prelates lords of the Churchall of whom held large stakes in the restoration of law and order to the Rhine.
Officially launched inthe Rhine League wasted no time putting robber barons out of business by the simple expedient of taking and destroying their castles. In the next three years, four robber barons were targeted and between ten and twelve robber castles destroyed or inactivated.
The Rhine League was not only successful in suppressing illicit collection of tolls and river robbery, they also took action against other state aggression.
For example, they are documented as having intervened to rescue a victim who of abduction by the Baron of Rietberg. When the Interregnum ended, the new Emperor Rudolf of Habsburg applied the lessons learned by the Rhine League to the destruction of the highway robbers at Soonecktorching their castles and hanging them.
England[ edit ] The reign of King Stephen of England — was a long period of civil unrest commonly known as " The Anarchy ". In the absence of strong central kingship, the nobility of England were a law unto themselves, as characterised in this excerpt from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: When the traitors saw that Stephen was a mild good humoured man who inflicted no punishment, then they committed all manner of horrible crimes.
They had done him homage and sworn oaths of fealty to him, but not one of their oaths was kept. They were all forsworn and their oaths broken.
For every great man built him castles and held them against the king; they sorely burdened the unhappy people of the country with forced labour on the castles; and when the castles were built they filled them with devils and wicked men. By night and by day they seized those they believed to have any wealth, whether they were men or women; and in order to get their gold or silver, they put them into prison and tortured them with unspeakable tortures, for never were martyrs tortured as they were.
They hung them up by the feet and smoked them with foul smoke. They strung them up by the thumbs, or by the head, and hung coats of mail on their feet. They tied knotted cords round their heads and twisted it until it entered the brain.
They put them in dungeons wherein were adders and snakes and toads and so destroyed them. Many thousands they starved to death.Putin’s Or Jewmerica’s Plan For Ukraine. Ukraine Articles. Putin’s Or Jewmerica’s Plan For Ukraine By Brother Nathanael Kapner April 27, ©. Support The Brother Nathanael Foundation!
Frequently asked questions about the transcontinental railroad. Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. Source: History, Britannica Henry Morrison Flagler was the mastermind behind transforming the Standard Oil Company into a monster monopoly.
He also built up Florida as a huge tourist destination. Meal times The history of meal times (and number of meals consumed) makes for fascinating study.
These differ greatly from culture to culture and through time. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Matthew Josephson in The Robber Barons () "society under lax political institutions would be wholly directed by interest" Cornelius Vanderbilt was the first "captain of modern industry," exploited steamship lines and railroads.